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2017年03月21日异域雅音
发布时间:2017-03-22 21:19:57   来源:   点击:
Culture Express
【编稿】叶璇
【播音】叶璇
Hello, everyone, welcome to today’s culture express. I’m Violet.大家好,我是主播叶子。在今天的文化快车中,主播将和大家聊聊中国古诗词的英译。首先和大家分享一首Ezra Pound的The River-Merchant’s wife: a Letter, 译自李白的《长干行》。
    妾发初覆额,折花门前剧;
  While my hair was still cut straight across my forehead
  I played about the front gate, pulling flowers.
  郎骑竹马来,绕床弄青梅。
  You came by on bamboo stilts, playing horse,
  You walked about my seat, playing with blue plums.
  同居长干里,两小无嫌猜。
  And we went on living in the village of Chokan:
  Two small people, without dislike or suspicion.
  十四为君妇,羞颜未尝开。
  At fourteen I married My Lord you.
  I never laughed, being bashful.
  低头向暗壁,千唤不一回。
  Lowering my head, I looked at the wall.
  Called to, a thousand times, I never looked back.
  十五始展眉,愿同尘与灰。
  At fifteen I stopped scowling,
  I desired my dust to be mingled with yours
  常存抱柱信,岂上望夫台。
  Forever and forever and forever.
  Why should I climb the lookout?
  十六君远行,瞿塘滟滪堆。
  At sixteen you departed,
  You went into far Ku-to-en, by the river swirling eddies,
  五月不可触,猿声天上哀。
  And you have been gone five months.
  The monkeys make sorrowful noise overhead.
  门前迟行迹,一一生绿苔。
  You dragged your feet when you went out.
  By the gate now, the moss is grown, the different mosses,
  苔深不能扫,落叶秋风早。
  Too deep to clear them away!
  The leaves fall early this autumn, in wind.
  八月蝴蝶黄,双飞西园草。
  The paired butterflies are already yellow with August
  Over the grass in the West garden—
  感此伤妾心,坐愁红颜老!
  They hurt me. I grow older.
  早晚下三巴,预将书报家。
  If you are coming down through the narrows of the river Kiang,
  Please let me know beforehand,
  相迎不道远,直至长风沙。
  And I will come out to meet you
  As far as Cho-fu-Sa.
这是一首写商妇的爱情和离别的诗。诗以商妇的自白,用缠绵婉转的笔调,抒写了她对远出经商丈夫的真挚的爱和深深的思念。This poem is a self-narrative of a merchant’s wife. It was divided to 5 stanzas according to the heroine’s emotional change.
  不难发现,诗中存在一些误译之处,如将“竹马”译成“bamboo stilts”(“高跷”)。在形式上,原诗是严格的五言律诗,而庞德的译诗则为无韵自由体诗。除此之外,两诗在语气、情感、主题内涵上的差别俯拾皆是。那么为什么庞德的这首《河商之妻:一封家书》仍是许多美国诗选的必录之作呢?这便牵扯到庞德自身与意象诗的兴起了。 
  Ezra Pound, a famous American poet, who affected the change from the tired sentimental vagueness of late Victorian literature to the experimentalism of the modernism, decisively affected the course of the twentieth-century American literature. Besides being a pioneer of imagistic verse in America, he is also a poet with love for Chinese culture.中国古典诗曾对美国新诗运动产生影响,庞德等美国新诗派诗人翻译的中国古诗是一种有意误译。而这种影响,在相当程度上也是通过庞德等人的误译产生的。例如,庞德把李白的“荒城空大漠”翻译成Desolate castle,the sky,the wide desert,造成“荒城”、“大漠”、“天空”这样三个意象并置,从而将意象给前置出来。正是因为类似的误译,引发了美国诗坛上一大批意象诗的产生。
看完Ezra Pound的英译,我们再来看看中国译者是怎样翻译前段时间大热的《三生三世》的。比如这句,“累世情缘,谁捡起,谁抛下,谁忘前尘,谁总牵挂。忆当时年华,谁点相思,谁种桃花。”
“This fated love of forever and a day--
  Who has picked it up? Who has thrown it away?
  Who has forgotten it all?Who yearns for it to stay?
  Those days bygone and labyrinthine--
  Who was the one that made the other sigh and pine?
  Who was in the peach orchard, raising flowers divine?”
这段来自南京大学陈星老师的译作在很多中国读者(包括我)看来尽显神韵,但国外读者是否也能get到此中真意呢?我们不得而知。在翻译文学作品,尤其是古典诗词时,部分语言特征和文化负载词的丢失是不可避免的,要做到“信、达、雅”并不是一件那么容易的事。
    最后就用女神翻译张璐的“For the ideal that I hold dear to my heart, I’d not regret a thousand times to die”来自勉吧。以上就是今天culture express的全部内容,感谢收听!