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2017年2月23日异域雅音
发布时间:2017-02-23 22:56:58   来源:   点击:
Culture Express
撰稿:林颖洁
播音:林颖洁
Hello everyone, I am Nefertari. Welcome to today's culture express.
1786年2月24日,著名德国民间文学研究者,语言学家,民俗学家威廉·格林出生,今天是他的诞辰231周年。他更为人所熟知的身份是格林童话的整理者,著名的格林兄弟之一。今天的culture express,将为大家介绍格林兄弟和永远的经典《格林童话》。
Jacob Grimm was born in January 4, 1785, in Hanau, Germany. Just over a year later, in February 24, 1786, his little brother Wilhelm Grimm was born. Their father was a lawyer, and they had six more brothers and one sister.
In 1802, Jacob went to university to study law at the University of Marburg. As always, his little brother followed him, and entered law school in 1803. During their university years they began to collect folk and fairy tales. Folklore is stories that have been passed down from parents to children, by word of mouth, but at that time many had not been published in books. The Grimms were especially interested in stories that included Germany and German culture.
Jacob and Wilhelm published their first book of fairy tales – “Children’s and Household Tales” - in 1812. There were 86 folktales. Readers were so happy to see the stories they had been told as children all collected together that the book was a success. In the next volume of “Grimm’s Fairy Tales”, the brothers added 70 more stories. It went on growing like this for six more editions. Finally, the book contained over 200 stories! It is probably the best-known work of German literature. Even if you don’t know the Brothers Grimm, you definitely know a Grimm fairy tale.

格林兄弟是雅各布·格林和威廉·格林兄弟两人的合称,他们是德国19世纪著名的历史学家,语言学家,民间故事和古老传说的搜集者。两人因经历相似,兴趣相近,合作研究语言学、搜集和整理民间童话与传说,故称“格林兄弟”。他们共同整理了销量仅次于《圣经》的 ”最畅销的德文作品“——《格林童话》。
The Brothers Grimm were both professors and scholars. In fact, Jacob Grimm is considered to be the father of the study of German history. They both taught as professors in Germany’s capital, at the University of Berlin. They became known throughout Europe as experts on anything to do with folktales, language, and anything German. They were so into books that they both became librarians as well! During their lifetimes they published many more very important books, including “German Mythology”, “Old German Tales”, “The History of the German Language”, and even the German Dictionary.
格林兄弟生于莱茵河畔的哈瑙,父亲是一名小官吏。他们的青年时代是在拿破仑占领德国时期度过的。当时,德国遭受异族侵略和封建势力的双重压迫。他们大学毕业后,埋头研究历史,在德国浪漫派作家阿尔尼姆和布仓塔诺合编的民歌集《儿童的奇异号角》的启发下,于1806年开始搜集,整理民间童话和古老传说,并于1814、1815、1822年陆续出版了3卷本的《德国儿童与家庭童话集》。
1814年拿破仑战败后,欧洲各国反动势力重新抬头,德国分裂状况仍然十分严重。这使格林兄弟产生政治必须改革的信心。在这个时期,他们努力把研究历史遗产与人民对自由、民主、统一的要求结合起来。他们研究德国语言,编写了《德语语法》和《德国语言史》,还有未完成的《德语词典》。这些研究工作,开创了研究日尔曼语言学的先河,也为德意志民族是个统一的民族提供了论证。
The first volume of the first edition was published in 1812, containing 86 stories; The first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter. In 1825, the Brothers published their "small edition", a selection of 50 tales designed for child readers. This children's version went through ten editions between 1825 and 1858.
The influence of these books was widespread. W. H. Auden praised the collection during World War II as one of the founding works of Western culture. The tales themselves have been put to many uses.
The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence.
The Grimm anthology has also been a source of inspiration for artists and composers. Some artists have created illustrations based on the stories.
Grimm fairy tales include stories of kings, magic, and talking animals. Even though the stories are sometimes scary, fairy tales allow us to work through our fears. They often teach us a lesson about moral values, and right and wrong.

俗称为格林童话的《儿童与家庭童话集》,在1812年第1卷出版之前,经历了长达6年的收集工作。而从1812年初版至1857年终版,其间更经历了将近半个世纪的修订再版,以及数个不同版本。
格林童话不都是对口传故事的采录,其中有相当数量的篇幅是来自书面材料。格林童话也不是原汁原味的纯粹的德国民间童话,而是受到法国等欧洲其他国家民间童话的影响,甚至有些童话源于他国。
1812年,这些故事结集成《儿童和家庭童话集》的第一卷,于圣诞节前夕在柏林问世,大受欢迎。此后直到1857年,格林兄弟不断补充故事,并一再修订,共推出七个版次。第七版后来成为在各国流传的原著版本,至今已译成数十种语言,许多故事都广为流传,如《白雪公主》、《灰姑娘》、《小红帽》、《睡美人》、《青蛙王子》等。
That's all of today, thanks for listening.
 
翻译
雅各布·格林1785年1月4日出生于德国的哈瑙。一年后,他的弟弟威廉·格林在2月24日出生。他们的父亲是一名法官,他们总共有六个兄弟和一个妹妹。
1802年雅各布来到马尔堡大学学习法律。一如往常,他的弟弟跟随着他于1803年进入了法学院。在大学期间,他们开始收集民间故事和童话。民间故事是一代代人通过口述流传下来的故事,有很多故事在当时并未被出版成书。格林兄弟对有德国特色的故事尤为喜爱。
格林兄弟在1812年出版了他们的第一本童话集《儿童与家庭童话集》。书中总共有86则故事。读者们十分欣喜地看到曾经在幼时听过的故事被收集成书,因而这本书大获成功。在下一集的格林童话中,格林兄弟添加了70度则故事。此后经过了六次再版。最终,格林童话共收录超200则的故事。这大概是最著名的德国文学作品。即使你不知道格林兄弟,但你一定知道格林童话。
第一版第一卷的童话出版于1812年,共有86则故事。然而第一版在当时受到了一些批评,因为此书虽然是儿童童话,但书中含有的学术知识和所选择的主题被认为并不很适合给孩子们阅读。1825年,格林兄弟再次出版为孩子们挑选的50则童话故事。这个儿童版本在1825年至1858年间被迅速传播并再版十次。
这本童话的影响十分广泛深远。有人在二战期间称赞它为西方文化的奠基作品之一。这本童话同时也影响了其他的故事收集者,不仅激励他们继续收集故事,同时也领导他们走向相似的信念——浪漫式民族主义,也就是童话故事是一个国家的代表,但忽略了多元文化的影响。格林童话还成为了艺术家和作曲家的灵感来源,多位艺术家在格林童话的基础上进行了二次创作。
格林童话包括了有关国王、魔法、会说话的动物的故事。即使有时故事略显恐怖,但童话故事总能安抚我们的恐惧。这些童话故事总能教导我们有关道德,有关价值,有关是非的人生道理。