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2016年12月26日异域雅音
发布时间:2016-12-26 21:46:19   来源:   点击:
【Culture Express】
撰稿:高一晨
播音:高一晨
Plastered on the wall of San Francisco’s main public library are 50000 index cards, formerly entries in the library’s catalogue. The tomes they refer to may be becoming decorative, too. Not only can library patrons now search the collection online, they may also check out electronic books without visiting the library. For libraries, “e-lending” is a natural offer in the digital age. Publishers and booksellers fear it could unbind their business.
关于图书馆对图书业影响的担忧并不新鲜。但数字设备使图书更加轻便快捷地走向读者的情形却加剧了这种担忧。正如大出版商Macmillan总裁Brian Napack 2011年所言,让人担忧的是拥有借书证的人“不必再购买书籍”。
A printed book can be borrowed only during opening hours and at the library, so many readers save themselves the hassle and buy their own copy. But e-lending is frictionless: any user with the right privileges can download a digital file instantly. This raises big issues: must libraries buy many copies of an e-book, or just one? And what about security? A hacker who cracks the library’s system could pirate everything it holds.
In publisher’s eyes librarians are sitting close to Satan”, declares Phil Bradley, president of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals. He was addressing indignant librarians who recently gathered in London to swap tales of e-lending woe. Some publishers have refused to sell their e-books to publish libraries, made them prohibitively costly or put severe restrictions on their use. Although 71% of British public libraries lend out e-books, 85% of e-book titles are not available in public libraries, according to Mr Bradley. In America the average public library makes available only 4350 e-books, while Amazon, an online giant, stocks more than 1.7m.
Under copyright law, anyone who buys a printed book can lend or rent it, but the same dose not apply to digital works. Libraries do not own these outright. Instead they must negotiate licensing deals for each book they want to lend. They put the e-collections on servers run by computer firms such as OverDrive and 3M, which typically charge around $20000 annually, plus a fee for each book.
有些图书馆尝试每借出一本电子图书就向出版商支付一笔钱。在丹麦,图书馆曾每借一本电子书都会支付大约17丹麦克朗,但即便是这么高的价格,丹麦最大的出版商也还是全身而退。它担心电子借阅会有损纸质图书的销售额。此外,在有些国家,图书馆靠节约向人们收费是非法的。有些人希望图书馆订阅大批图书,就像大学订购学术期刊一样。然而,出版商担心这可能会降低消费者和图书馆对图书价值的认识。
E-lending may reduce publishers’ control of their books, but it also takes power away from libraries. Relying on outsiders’ servers to host e-collections can mean legal hassles and worries about privacy. Alan Inouye of the American Library Association notes that libraries jealously guard data about users’ borrowing habits. But e-lending leaves new, digital traces that publishers could exploit.
An even bigger worry for both libraries and publishers is competition. In 2011 Amazon launched an e-lending programme in America. It has since expanded it to Britain, France and Germany. Customers who sign up for Amazon’s “prime” bundle of services, which offers free delivery and streamed movies for an annual fee, can also borrow a book each month on their Kindles, Amazon’s e-reading device. So far no works from big publishers are available. Librarians are irked by this, but not yet anxious. Laura Lent, the chief of collections at San Francisco Public Library, notes that lending from her shelves, unlike Amazon’s, is free of charge.
国际图书馆协会联合会的斯图尔特.汉密尔顿说,图书管理员与图书产业利益不同。但如果不培养未来几代人养成读书习惯,两者的利益都会不复存在。图书馆借阅在培养对阅读上的热爱上起着巨大且不可估量的作用。
Some even wonder if e-lending is in the libraries’ interests, since it encourages people to stay at home, rather than use them as a public space. The libraries’ story has plenty more pages yet.
【Culture Express】
撰稿:高一晨
播音:高一晨
       旧金山最大的公共图书馆的墙壁上贴满以前记载着图书馆数目条录的5万张索引卡片。这些索引卡所指引的众多巨著可能也越来越成为一种装饰。如今图书馆的顾客不仅可以在网上搜索图书,而且还可以不必去图书馆就能查看电子图书。对图书管理员来说,“电子借阅”是数字时代自然而然提供的服务。出版商和书商却担心,这会打破他们的经营模式。
      关于图书馆对图书业影响的担忧并不新鲜。但数字设备使图书更加轻便快捷地走向读者的情形却加剧了这种担忧。正如大出版商麦克米伦总裁布莱恩.纳帕克2011年所言,让人担忧的是拥有借书证的人“不必再购买书籍”。
纸质图书只有在开馆时间才能从图书馆借阅,因此很多读者为避免麻烦,就干脆自己买一本。但是电子借阅却无此麻烦:任何有权限的读者都可以即可下载数字文件。这就会引发严重问题:图书馆必须购买一本电子书的很多副本,还是只买一个?而且安全性如何?能够破解图书馆系统的黑客可能会盗版图书馆拥有的所有资料。
      英国图书馆与情报专家学会主席菲尔.布拉德利宣称,在出版商的眼里,图书管理员“正与撒旦为伍”。最近愤愤不平的图书管理员在伦敦召开会议,针对电子借阅互诉苦衷。布拉德利对他们作了一番讲话。有些出版商已拒绝将其电子图书卖给公共图书馆,或把价格太高地离谱,或对电子图书的使用进行严格限制。布拉德利先生说,虽然71%的英国公共图书馆外借电子图书,但85%的电子图书在公共图书馆里是查不到的。在美国,图书馆平均只能借到4350本电子图书,而网络零售巨头亚马逊的图书馆储备却超过170万。
      根据版权法,任何购买纸质图书的人可以借出或出租这本书,但这对于数字作品却不适用。图书馆并不完全拥有这些图书。相反,他们必须为其要借出的每一本图书协商授权协议。他们将电子藏书放到OneDrive和3M等电脑公司经营的服务器上,这些公司一般每年收费约2万美元,每本书还要单收一笔费用。
      有些图书馆尝试每借出一本电子图书就向出版商支付一笔钱。在丹麦,图书馆曾每借一本电子书都会支付大约17丹麦克朗,但即便是这么高的价格,丹麦最大的出版商也还是全身而退。它担心电子借阅会有损纸质图书的销售额。此外,在有些国家,图书馆靠节约向人们收费是非法的。有些人希望图书馆订阅大批图书,就像大学订购学术期刊一样。然而,出版商担心这可能会降低消费者和图书馆对图书价值的认识。
       电子借阅可能会降低出版商对图书的控制,而且还会削弱图书馆的力量。依靠外部服务器管理电子藏书可能意味着法律争议,并存在隐私方面的担忧。美国图书馆协会的阿兰.井上指出,图书馆小心翼翼地保护着用户借阅习惯的数据。但电子借阅留下了新的数字踪迹,他们可能会被出版商加以利用。
       对图书馆和出版商来说,更大的忧虑在于竞争。2011年,亚马逊在美国推出电子借阅项目。此后扩展到英国、法国和德国。注册亚马逊绑定服务的消费者还可以每月在亚马逊电子Kindle阅读器上借阅一本书。到目前为止,还无法获取大出版商的作品。对此图书管理员很恼火,但并不焦虑。旧金山公共图书馆藏书主任劳拉.伦特指出,与亚马逊不同的是,从她的图书馆借阅电子图书是免费的。
       国际图书馆协会联合会的斯图尔特.汉密尔顿说,图书管理员与图书产业利益不同。但如果不培养未来几代人养成读书习惯,两者的利益都会不复存在。图书馆借阅在培养对阅读上的热爱上起着巨大且不可估量的作用。
一些人甚至不知道电子借阅是否符合图书馆的利益,因为它鼓励人们足不出户,而不是将图书馆作为公共场所。总之,图书馆的故事远未结束。